#05Glottophobies et imaginaires des langues

Apolline Pardillos

Solemos leer y escuchar que Roberto Arlt representó la realidad material y lingüística de los marginales de la sociedad porteña de los años 1930. Asimismo, la teoría del realismo comprometido de Roberto Arlt, aunque muy criticada apenas apareció, marcó de forma permanente la casi totalidad de los escritos dedicados posteriormente al escritor y a su obra. La proliferación de opiniones divergentes al respecto nos permite, sin embargo, suponer que una definición – aunque sea amplía – del movimiento literario realista, es incapaz de dar cuenta del carácter polifacético de las novelas de Arlt. Por ende, este artículo pretende poner en tela de juicio, desde varios ángulos, la teoría del realismo arltiano para demostrar que las dos novelas de Arlt estudiadas no sólo superan el realismo sino que lo abandonan de manera definitiva en más de un aspecto.

Ricardo Torre

El presente artículo propone un recorrido espacial a través de los tres primeros libros de cuentos del escritor argentino contemporáneo Marcelo Cohen (Buenos Aires, 1951). A partir del marco teórico de la geocrítica de Bertrand Westphal exploraremos la representación de Buenos Aires y de Europa en varios relatos de las obras Lo que queda, Los pájaros también se comen y El instrumento más caro de la Tierra, publicadas entre 1972 et 1981.

Sonia Fournet-Pérot

Este estudio pretende cuestionar la influencia de los movimientos feministas actuales en la sabiduría popular española. La lengua suele reflejar las evoluciones de la sociedad y, siguiendo ese modelo, el refrán, como manifestación lingüística particular, debería ser objeto de una feminización que aspira a la paridad hombre / mujer. Sin embargo también se caracteriza el lenguaje proverbial por su fijación, que tiende a dificultar las adaptaciones, así como lo demuestra un análisis profundizado del refranero de Regino Etxabe que data de 2012; de aquí una tensión entre permanencia y evolución que parece aflojarse, no obstante, en situación de comunicación, lo que revela una diferencia de tratamiento entre lengua y discurso.

Fiona Rossette

While much scholarship in the field of political discourse deals with rhetoric and argumentation, a new focus in recent years has been placed on the specific interpersonal dynamics brought into play. In this article, I explore the interconnections between politics and bodies from a linguistic perspective in terms of: (i) physical phenomena which highlight the role of the speaker’s body, are contingent on the moment of delivery of the speech, and physically bring speaker and audience together; (ii) participant framework. These two aspects coincide with the two components that found Rhetorical Staging, a specific enunciative setup based on a staging of the discourse – and therefore the speaker’s embodiment of the discourse – and a participant framework whereby the speaker adopts an elevated position in order to address an audience that extends beyond the direct public – who are incorporated into this far-reaching community. This two-part, interrelated process is discussed in relation to two speeches delivered by Barack Obama, electoral (the 2007 Jefferson-Jackson Dinner speech) and epideictic (e.g. eulogy delivered in Charleston, June 2015). In the case of political oratory, both embodiment and incorporation prove particularly powerful in legitimating the speech as a political event, and therefore the speaker in his role as leader.

Gabriele Siracusano

La prima ondata di decolonizzazioni avviata tra la fine degli anni ’50 e l’inizio dei ’60 scatenò entusiasmo in tutto il mondo, poiché la fine del sistema coloniale significava l’inizio di una nuova fase della storia dell’umanità. In Italia, il più grande partito comunista dell’Occidente, il Partito comunista italiano (PCI), a partire dalle tesi elaborate dal XX Congresso del PCUS nel 1956, cominciò a sviluppare una sua via originale verso il socialismo e il confronto con l’Africa che si rendeva indipendente – nella visione del PCI – fu fondamentale per elaborare la teoria di un mondo policentrico, dove i comunisti non erano più soli nella battaglia antimperialista. L’indipendenza della Guinea (1958), in particolare, fu il primo banco di prova delle relazioni africane dei comunisti italiani, che osservarono i tentativi di questa nuova repubblica di emanciparsi economicamente dagli ex-dominatori grazie all’aiuto dei paesi socialisti. I legami importanti con la Guinea furono oggetto di riflessioni teoriche e politiche all’interno del Partito comunista e avrebbero definito una linea d’azione verso il Sud del mondo e i futuri contatti con i movimenti dell’Africa australe. Questo articolo analizza la natura dei rapporti tra PCI e guineani e la loro evoluzione nel contesto globale della guerra fredda, tra visioni di progresso e di fallimento.

Arianne Des Rochers

Robert Twiss

In Against World Literature: On the Politics of Untranslatability (Verso, 2013) and elsewhere, Emily Apter appeals to “mistranslation” as a basis for her concept of “untranslatability,” which she uses to critique the hegemony of English in the academic study of world literature, especially as it manifests itself in the forms of an excessive reliance on English translations and a facile assumption of transparency and equivalence between texts and their translations. In this article, we argue that the theoretical shortcomings with Apter’s concept of “untranslatability” render it ineffective as a tool for the critique and analysis of actual, translated texts. Taking the problems with Apter’s “untranslatability” as a point of departure, we argue that attention to the ways in which difference in translation (and mistranslation) creates meaning can help us better understand both translations and their source texts. In contradistinction to Apter’s invocation of inscrutability and untranslatability as a plea to respect the distinctiveness of texts, languages, and cultures, we defend the importance and productivity of the study of translated texts and translation practice as a means of better understanding this distinctiveness. In this view, looking at “mistranslations” reveals itself as a productive tool that can help us grasp the richness and complexity of languages, texts, and ideas.

Antonietta Sanna

«Humanum fuit errare» selon Saint Augustin (Sermones164,14). Si l’on applique au domaine de la traduction la devise augustinienne et que l’on prend le mot latin non pas dans l’acception d’« être en erreur», de «se tromper», mais plutôt dans le sens de «marcher à l’aventure», on peut considérer l’erreur comme une chance, un imprévu qui permet de contribuer par le biais de la traduction à la définition d’une esthétique de l’erreur. En acceptant l’erreur on libère l’œuvre traduite du mythe du perfectumet de la fidélité et on considère l’imperfectumcomme expression artistique assumant une densité sémantique. Nombreux sont les exemples en philosophie, en histoire de l’art, en littérature qui montrent que la perfection est toujours hors de la portée humaine et que seule l’imperfection surprend, suggère des directions imprévues, suscite la polysémie, appelle à la reprise, à la réinterprétation.

Jana-Katharina Mende

This article analyses mistranslations in the Parisian lectures of the Polish author Adam Mickiewicz at the Collège de France. The texts were published between 1841 and 1849 in different versions in French, Polish, and German. Initially, mistranslations are defined as deliberate decisions of the translators, after which their aesthetic, linguistic, and linguistic-political functions are discussed. The analysis shows that those mistranslations were deliberately used by the author and the translators to achieve linguistic-political and aesthetic effects that were not intended in the original. This explains the mistranslations in the text, which are not to be understood as translation mistakes.

Claire Placial

In the Vulgata, Jerome translated the first words of verse 1,5 of the Song of Salomon by nigra sum sed formosa (« I am black but beautiful »), while the Hebrew text could or should be translated by et formosa (« and beautiful ») ; this choice shows the importance of translation of even the apparently smallest words, since its impact on exegesis and iconography are huge. Recently, the development of feminist, black and queer exegesis has shed light on the necessity of questioning the Vulgata’s translation choice, that had been emulated in all languages in the Christian West.

Sara Landa

This article discusses the cooperation in translation between philologists and poets In a case study, three German versions of a poem by the Chinese Author Lu Xun were compared which were created out of a collaboration between the philologists Egbert Baqué and Michael Streffer together with the poets Sarah Kirsch, Jürgen Theobaldy and Gisela Kraft. Analyzing the different versions allows insights into the interplay between philology and poetry which brings forth a special potential for integrating foreign texts into new literary and cultural contexts despite or because of some instances of ‘mistranslation’. Moreover, it shows how inextricably translating and writing are intertwined.

Dirk Weissmann

Anne Weber, née en 1964 à Offenbach, en Allemagne, vivant à Paris depuis 1983, est auteur et traductrice. Elle traduit du français vers l’allemand (entre autres Pierre Michon et Marguerite Duras) et de l’allemand vers le français (entre antres Wilhelm Genazino et Sibylle Lewitscharoff). Depuis 1998, elle a publié Ida invente la poudre, Première personne, Cerbère, Cendres & métaux, Chers oiseaux, Tous mes vœux, Auguste et Vallée des merveilles. Anne Weber écrit en français et en allemand. Dans cet entretien, l’écrivaine auto-traductrice évoque son dernier ouvrage, Vaterland, publiée en 2015, ainsi que les enjeux de son écriture bilingue.

Sabine Reungoat

Cet article porte sur les perceptions anglaises de l’Irlande et de sa relation à l’Angleterre à l’époque de la Restauration. À travers les écrits de trois réformateurs anglais, nous examinons les ressorts et les ambiguïtés du discours économique sur l’ « improvement », visant à promouvoir la paix et la prospérité en Irlande. Alors qu’émerge, dans le sillage de la révolution scientifique, une approche quantitative des faits économiques, ce discours demeure tributaire des représentations et des préjugés propres à la communauté anglo-irlandaise, et constitue l’un des modes de légitimation de sa présence et de son action sur le territoire irlandais.

Pierpaolo Naccarella

En 1947, Ruggero Zangrandi raconte dans Il lungo viaggio le passage à l'antifascisme des jeunes intellectuels fascistes de sa génération. Pourquoi les thèses défendues dans ce volume autobiographique ont-elles eu, pendant plus de quatre décennies, autant de succès auprès des historiens et de l'opinion italienne ? Deux explications sont les plus plausibles. La première est que d'influents dirigeants politiques et intellectuels engagés ont tout de suite réservé un accueil favorable à Il lungo viaggio. La deuxième est que l'interprétation de Zangrandi a le pouvoir de soulager les Italiens du poids historique et moral qu'exerçait sur eux le soutien accordé au fascisme.

Laura Gentilezza

El trabajo del escritor argentino Hernán Ronsino ha recibido últimamente una especial atención de parte de la crítica literaria que encuentra en su literatura una voz precisa y distinta en el panorama actual de la literatura argentina. Este trabajo se propone, en primer lugar, comparar su novela Glaxo con su versión francesa buscando volver la mirada, a partir de los puntos problemáticos que la traducción presenta, hacia la lengua original, ahí donde Ronsino define esta voz. Estos puntos nos permiten, en segundo lugar, trabajar aspectos de la lengua más arraigados a la oralidad de su terruño que al estricto cuidado de la gramática y que se resisten al disfraz de la traducción. Reconstruimos así el trabajo que este escritor realiza en la lengua descentrada y marginal que se propone poetizar.

Benoît Coquil

L’œuvre de l’écrivain argentin contemporain Sergio Chejfec est traversée par la question de la mémoire, qu’il s’agisse du passé familial marqué par la Shoah et l’exil ou bien de la mémoire des disparus de la dictature militaire argentine. Cependant, Chejfec n’aborde pas frontalement l’anamnèse (comme pourrait le faire un simple récit testimonial) mais bien de façon oblique, en usant de multiples recours formels et en cherchant à susciter l’interprétation du lecteur. Nous tenterons de montrer, à la lumière des critiques adressées par l’essayiste Beatriz Sarlo à la forme du récit « de témoignage » qui se développe après la dictature, que Lenta biografía se caractérise par un dispositif de médiations diverses qui distancient le je du narrateur de son passé familial, et que le travail de la fiction a ici une place prépondérante dans l’écriture mémorielle.

Lewis R. Gordon

The author argues that disciplines are human phenomena that produce knowledge without having to collapse into anthropomorphism. Dying disciplines turn away from reality; living disciplines reach to reality without attempting to capture, colonize, or constrain it. The author refers to the former as “disciplinary decadence,” which, he argues, is the dominant model in much of the academy. The situation need not, however, be moribund. The author outlines this concept, explores possibilities for its transcendence, particularly through resources of phenomenology from the global south, and devotes much attention to the question: Is even human transcendence, disciplinarily understood, a human relationship?

Carsten Junker

Ingo H. Warnke

This contribution discusses questions of disciplinarity with reference to the example of the person and works of Marguerite Stix. The authors debate the implications of concepts such as trans-, inter-, multi- and x-disciplinarity in a critical fashion. They connect biographical sketches with conceptual reflections on their case study, making a plea for new disciplines with specific disciplinary delineations. The article contributes to North American Literary and Cultural Studies as well as Interdisciplinary Linguistics while, simultaneously, it argues for overcoming such disciplinary ascriptions.

Carsten Junker

Ingo H. Warnke

This contribution discusses questions of disciplinarity with reference to the example of the person and works of Marguerite Stix. The authors debate the implications of concepts such as trans-, inter-, multi- and x-disciplinarity in a critical fashion. They connect biographical sketches with conceptual reflections on their case study, making a plea for new disciplines with specific disciplinary delineations. The article contributes to North American Literary and Cultural Studies as well as Interdisciplinary Linguistics while, simultaneously, it argues for overcoming such disciplinary ascriptions.

Jane Anna Gordon

This article examines how the concept of creolization, that emerged to grasp the distinctly African New World of the Caribbean, offers especially useful resources for thinking through what can and should constitute alternative forms of intellectual legitimacy and scholarly progress in transdisciplinary pursuits. It does so by revisiting Thomas Kuhn’s suggestion in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that cause and effect are often mistaken when determining which scholarly projects merit the designation as “science.” Suggesting that transdisciplinary scholarship fundamentally rejects most of the conditions that constitute normal scientific communities, it turns to the ways in which creole languages revealed the insufficiency of prior academic linguistic models by demonstrating that the multilinguistic, multiracial, and multinational region out of which they came was prototypical rather than exceptional. As with the languages themselves, the concept of creolization, when used by creative writers and social theorists alike, offered a more rigorous descriptive account of the outcomes of the larger transnational and transoceanic processes that ushered in European modernity. In ways that offer a guide to disciplines beyond the model of identitarian, sovereign territories, they drew on varieties of scholarly resources to understand how people without prior shared histories did not exist in impermeable bubbles but were remade in relation to one another. Finally, the piece asks whether the prefix “trans-,” shared in terms like transnationalism, transdisciplinarity, or transsexuality, should encourage us to consider whether the aim of calls for transdisciplinarity are for “trans” to be a temporary designation and episodic challenge or a permanent orientation.

Antje Schuhmann

This contribution explores the politics of transdisciplinarity on three interconnected levels: Firstly, transdisciplinarity as an aspect within the political economics of university management. Secondly, in relation to universities socio-political significance in transitional societies in the global South, grappling with historic legacies of violence and exclusion shaping todays socio-political complexities. Thirdly, as a crucial element of critical pedagogy in relation non-hierarchical and non-violent forms of communication and interaction assisting assist students and teachers in unlocking their individual potential, to develop critical thinking skills, a consciousness of freedom versus authoritarianism and of self-situatedness in relation to power and privilege—ultimately empowering them to be socially and politically responsive and responsible.

Rob Moore

This paper argues that the contemporary complexity of global challenges requires “connective cognition”, joined-up approaches to knowledge and innovation. These trans-disciplinary knowledge systems afford insights into complex challenges and offer prospects for remedying measures which are distilled from multiple knowledge fields and multiple locales, yielding hybrid and transcendent ways of apprehending the world. This cross-boundary collaboration enables forms of societal learning which are essentially connective and which will constitute the cognitive patterns and platforms of the future. This knowledge generation needs to be the subject of study in its own right because it is far from straightforward.

Nelson Maldonado-Torres

The decolonization of knowledge involves various forms of transdisciplinarity but not all forms of transdisciplinarity are decolonial. This article offers an analysis of decolonial transdisciplinarity in relation to the European sciences, its disciplines, and methods. It identifies a “secular-line” which combines with a “color-line” to define the context and horizon of European sciences. Ethnic Studies appear as the site of a different attitude to the one found in the European sciences and as an example of decolonial transdisciplinary thinking.

Mélanie Grué

This article compares the fixed identities resulting from the essentialist drift in research, to the multiple free identifications generated by the practice of transgressive, sadomasochist lesbianism: It cross-reads Dorothy Allison’s queer grotesque literary works, feminist, gay and lesbian studies, and subject theory, to show that the transdisciplinary approach promotes a reevaluation and reconsideration of the complexity which pertains to queer identities. Whereas traditional disciplines deny the subject’s complexity, this study argues that queer grotesque literature works contra disciplinary and identity paradigms to propose a counter-model of the human subject.

Cristina Marinas

Ángela de la Cruz, pintora española nacida en La Coruña en 1965, vive en Londres desde 1989. En 2010 fue finalista del prestigioso Premio Turner otorgado por la Tate Gallery por la originalidad de su obra que borra las fronteras entre la pintura y la escultura. Las pinturas de Ángela de la Cruz, nacidas de la destrucción física de los marcos y de los bastidores, son creaciones antropomorfas , por los títulos figurativos, y por las violentas tensiones de los lienzos, brillantes óleos monocromos fijados sobre bastidores rotos, colgados en la pared, o  colocados sobre el suelo.

Matthieu Renault

This article aims to demonstrate that, in addition to his famous (anti)colonial novels and short stories, Joseph Conrad is the author of one postcolonial novel: Under Western Eyes. To understand it requires analyzing the intertwining of intra-European imperialism (especially Russian) and extra-European imperialism (in Africa and Asia) in Conrad’s works. Conrad, a (Polish) “colonized” subject who became a (British) “colonizer”, turns a (British) imperial gaze onto the (Russian) imperial power, in a peculiar reversal of the dialectic of lordship and bondage. In this respect, the opposition between Russia and the West is translated into the language of colonialism. However, Conrad simultaneously and ceaselessly challenges the power of the West — especially of the novel’s English teacher-narrator— to understand and represent his (Russian) Other. He gives rises to a perspectivism which confronts the discourse of racial difference by focusing on the gaze that produces these differences. At the heart of Under Western Eyes, multiple perspectives are engaged in a dialog-conflict which undermines the hegemony of the European-imperial perspective.

Elise Vallier

This article explores the life experiences of four African American women who worked as teachers in both the North and South of the United States between 1861 and 1900, through the study of life narratives such as diaries, autobiographies and memoirs. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology, the first part shows that the motivations of these four female teachers were quite diverse and often rooted in a strong racial consciousness. Then, the article delves into these women’s everyday experiences in both the North and the South of the country. Lastly, this work examines the importance of social class and region in these four women’s teaching experiences. It demonstrates how some of them could have preconceived ideas about the other region.

Myriam Suchet

Quebec literature has much to offer to the French reader: not only is it pleasing to read, it also denaturalizes the linguistic bowl they/we live in. We will briefly explore three plays, that will lead from a spectacular performance of identity “en québécois” (Macbeth by Michel Garneau), to the subversive subduction of French beneath an English superstratum (The Dragonfly of Chicoutimi by Larry Tremblay), to conclude with the staging of a constitutive and polyphonic multitude (Yukonstyle by Sarah Berthiaume). Whereas plurilinguism might give the illusion of preserving a linguistic diversity as if tongues where autonomous and discrete entities, heterolingualism more radically questions the borders of what “a tongue” is. Can we substitute a heterolingual paradigm to the monolingual way of thinking? What is at stake does not concern solely the language: identity itself has to be renegotiated. In other terms, it is the goldfish as well as the bowl that has to be examined…

Mariana Bono

In language contact situations, circulating discourses about languages and their speakers and about language learning voice cultural and historical conceptions about language and throw light on the complex symbolic dimensions underlying all language learning activities. This article aims to explore such discursive manifestations by university students learning Spanish as L3. Firstly, we propose a theoretical overview in order to discern between what can be said to “belong to the self” and what is “foreign” when it comes to language learning in multilingual settings. We also deal with the notions of source and target: what is the initial learning stage when the learner already knows several languages? How do we define ultimate achievement in language learning? We then look into the ways in which the learners’ multilingualism is construed and how these discoursive constructions relate to their learning practices in the classroom. More specifically, personal narratives are analyzed in the search for words through which the learners come to terms with linguistic alterity and make a new language their own. Finally, we focus on translingual practices, which transcend language-specific boundaries and result in learning and communication strategies involving more than just the L1 and the L2.

Marie Rivière

Bien que remise en question depuis les années 1980, la notion de « langue maternelle » reste très utilisée dans les études de didactique des langues portant sur la lecture en langue étrangère. Souvent considérée comme la seule langue dans laquelle on a appris à lire, « la langue maternelle » serait celle qu’on lit le plus et le mieux, qu’on préfère à toutes les autres. Cet article confronte ces présupposés aux pratiques de lecture de livres de 24 adultes plurilingues vivant en Europe de l’Ouest. Il en ressort que, pour des raisons historiques, politiques et sociales dans un contexte donné, ou à cause de parcours scolaires, géographiques et affectifs individuels, des personnes n’ont pas été exclusivement – voire pas du tout – scolarisées dans leurs langues familiales. Par ailleurs, avoir appris à lire dans une langue ne garantit pas qu’elle restera la principale langue, ni la langue préférée de lecture tout au long de la vie.

Cyril Vettorato

Poets Amiri Baraka, Kamau Brathwaite and Abdias do Nascimento, all poetically active during the 1960s and 1970s, have attempted to create a poetic utopia, that of a cultural and linguistic reconnection with Africa. The language of the African “Other”, presented as an Inner Other, crystallizes their aspirations to return to lost cultures. The choice of an African language inserted in the English or Portuguese text therefore holds a symbolic significance: for Brathwaite, Akan is akin to a mask he wore during his stay in Ghana in order to become possessed again by his African ancestors; for Baraka, Swahili is the emblem of a strong-willed Afrocentrism influenced by the philosophy of Maulana Karenga; for Nascimento, finally, Yoruba is a dynamic matrix which manifests itself in  the words of Brazilian candomblé – a sign of a subterranean cultural continuity. This article looks at the respective poetic strategies developed by these poets in order to accomplish poetically the utopia of linguistic reconnection.

Manuel Meune

Wenn im Ausland auf die traditionelle Viersprachigkeit der Schweiz verwiesen wird, wird dabei oft die Koexistenz von standardisierten Sprachen und Dialekten vergessen. Die so genannte Diglossie, die vor allem für die Deutsch- und Italienischsprachigen zum Alltag gehört, existiert auch – allerdings in sehr abgeschwächter Form – im Falle des Französischen und der frankoprovenzalischen Dialekte (oft ‚patois‘ genannt). In der frankophonen Schweiz ist das Phänomen zwar kaum mehr sicht- und hörbar, doch in soziolinguistischer Perspektive verdient es durchaus Beachtung. Hier werden die Ergebnisse zweier Befragungen von Francoprovenzalisch-Sprechern im Kanton Freiburg vorgestellt – die eine basierte auf Interviews, die andere auf Fragebögen. Dabei werden vergangene und gegenwärtige Sprachgewohnheiten analysiert, ebenso wie die Vorstellungen über eine Sprache, deren Konturen manchmal schwer zu definieren sind, bzw. über deren Zukunft und Wiederbelebung in mündlicher und schriftlicher Form. Behandelt wird schliesslich auch die Wahrnehmung der Diglossie und der Mehrsprachigkeit in jenem offiziell zweisprachigen Kanton, wo die lokalen Dialekte, die schon 1886 in den Schulen verboten wurden, im deutschsprachigen Teil die Konkurrenz der Standardsprache überlebten, während sie im frankophonen Teil allmählich verschwanden.

Silvia Contarini

Questo articolo analizza le questioni di ordine linguistico poste dalla cosiddetta  letteratura italiana della migrazione, in particolare la questione della lingua « altra » e delle radici identitarie. L’articolo propone di fare il punto sui diversi approcci critici che sono stati sviluppati su questo soggetto complesso (approcci spesso situati a metà strada tra lettura sociologico-biografica e critica della ricezione), sfruttando un’ampia bibliografia. In tale ambito, l’autore nota gli stereotipi e le difficoltà concettuali di una critica che fa fatica a adottare la giusta prospettiva di fronte a un corpus per natura disuguale.

Stefano Colangelo

Cet article propose une esquisse de typologie du plurilinguisme poétique dans la modernité italienne, à travers des exemples tirés d’Alberto Savinio, Emilio Villa, Andrea Zanzotto et Patrizia Vicinelli, sur fond d'une scène culturelle bien complexe, changeante, et multilingue elle-même. Il s’agit de préciser les contours de certaines catégories à l’œuvre, inhérentes à la pratique du plurilinguisme et à l'histoire de la poétique : l'Inscape, d’origine hopkinsienne, l'optique plurilingue, la position du dialecte comme élément de poétique et le retour, enfin, au pouvoir de la voix comme racine germinale et finale du plurilinguisme.

Florence Courriol

L’articolo prende in esame il plurilinguismo letterario nella prosa italiana contemporanea dal punto di vista della sua traduzione in una cultura tendenzialmente « monolingue » - il francese. Il testo affronta la problematica dell’effetto di straniamento creato dal testo di partenza e, pertanto, della possibilità di ricreazione di tale scarto grazie all’uso delle parlate regionali francesi.

Anne Garcia

La noción de « marco » se desarrolló primero en el ámbito de las artes visuales antes de ser retomada por la literatura y utilizada como una herramienta privilegiada para el análisis de las « orillas » de la obra. Partiendo de esta noción, el presente artículo propone comentar el poemario Irás y no volverás (1973) del escritor y poeta José Emilio Pacheco (México D.F., 1939). La primera parte del trabajo se centra en la estructura del libro, en particular sobre el conjunto de elementos textuales que la circundan: títulos, intertítulos, epígrafes, que fungen como umbrales: retardan la entrada en el poema y, mediante el surgimiento de otras voces, abren un universo poético a la vez distante y cercano. En la segunda parte, el objeto de estudio es el espacio evocado. Aunque la ciudad de México y la época contemporánea ocupan un lugar central en este marco representado, los constantes vaivenes entre lo cercano y lo distante, entre el presente y el pasado, convierten el « desbordamiento » en un movimiento característico del poemario. La tercera y última parte procura estudiar el papel de las citas, que enmarcan el poema y que sirven de armazón en la arquitectura de los textos: son otros signos visibles del trabajo de reescritura que reafirma constantemente la concepción transitoria y colectiva de la escritura poética en la obra de José Emilio Pacheco.

Nathalie Dupont

The Academy Awards ceremony draws more and more attention to Hollywood every year. This contribution does not aims to judge the artistic merits of Oscar-winning movies, but to analyze how commercial considerations have gradually assumed more and more importance, both as part of the ceremony itself and in order to guarantee the Awards’ permanence and profitability. We then show that economic globalization has reinforced the commercial side of the Academy Awards since the 1990s. But while the major studios have succeeded in making an increased profit on the ceremony, independent cinema producers, too, have managed to take advantage of the heightened media attention.

Roberto Bein

Este artículo intenta mostrar que la política argentina de enseñanza de lenguas, incluida la actual, está muy condicionada por la voluntad de ser un país europeo en América Latina, a pesar de la instauración constitucional de la educación intercultural bilingüe, la cooficialización de lenguas indígenas en algunas provincias y la oferta obligatoria de portugués en la escuela secundaria como manera de construir una ciudadanía sudamericana.  Para ello pasa revisión histórica a las distintas políticas lingüísticas, en especial con relación a las lenguas extranjeras, y analiza a continuación la situación actual.

Lewis R. Gordon

This article offers a critique of the notion that essence must entail essentialism. The author argues that this presumption depends on an appeal to a metaphysics in which things stand outside of relations with the rest of reality. Offering a relational metaphysics and a phenomenological model of ontological suspension, the author argues that a form of essence without essentialism could be deployed in the human sciences to analyze, among other things, tendencies to treat certain human communities as problems in themselves.

François Cusset

By an historical return to the emerging conditions of the essentialism/anti-essentialism debate, this article suggests that essentialism be thought of as the invention of a stigmatizing term. It defends the idea that the debate opposing the two terms is complicated by a strategic use of essentialism. Because the dualism through which essentialism and anti-essentialism are opposed is henceforth out of date, it is necessary to rethink these terms by taking into account “the social force.”

Cécile Roudeau

Distributing the sensible, lines are both essential for conceptualization and implicated in the diktats of paradigmatic definitions. While they introduce the possibility of meaning by making it possible to order the world, they also jeopardize the freedom of what Barthes calls the neuter, summoning the compartmentalization of the common into sexes, races, species, and nations. Are lines, then, a necessary evil?

Taking the 1850s as its starting point, this article argues that the decade inaugurated by the compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law radically questioned the agency of the line, its legitimacy and efficiency in stabilizing categories. In law as in literature, in natural history as in political debates, lines were passionately defended and challenged. Each of the authors considered here (Ralph Waldo Emerson, Susan Cooper, Frederick Douglass, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) bet on the line and speculated on its agency – displacing it and sometimes even flirting with the desire to do away with it. But dismissing the line altogether also resulted in the erasure of those to whom the line gave a paradoxical visibility “beyond the pale”. The line was not, then – and cannot be – the preserve of essentialism. This article offers a reconsideration of the line as the condition of the political. At the junction of poetics and politics, the line is the ever shifting place where categories rise and fall, where the partition between the visible and the invisible is ever challenged.

Frédéric Pouillaude

Is a philosophical attempt to define art necessarily “essentialist”? Does such an approach posit that there is such a thing as an “essence of art”? To respond to this question, I will first distinguish between two forms of essentialism: an essentialism of content that regards art as a set of well-defined and sufficient properties which philosophy must reveal; and an essentialism of status which is content with asserting the relative stability bestowed on objects by its own definition. I will then examine the links between these two forms of essentialism and several definitions of art. After showing the various limitations of previous attempts at philosophical definitions of art, I propose to bring back the notion of essence by envisioning it not as a philosophical tool or content but rather as a form of negativity and as an intra-artistic driving force.

Alfonso M. Iacono

Partant de la définition kantienne de la minorité, telle qu'elle est énoncée dans « Qu'est-ce que les Lumières », Alfonso M. Iacono trace un chemin qui, en passant par Adorno-Horkheimer, Kafka, Foucault, Weber, Trasymaque et Robinson Crusoé nous mène à la notion plus dense d'autonomie. Pour dépasser la focalisation kantienne sur la notion de volonté individuelle qui, au XXème s., après le marxisme et la psychanalyse, entre autres, n'est plus satisfaisante, Iacono fait sienne la suggestion de Kafka d'interroger le lien social entre la question de la volonté individuelle et la peur de sortir de la minorité, pointant ainsi cet « aspect anti-démocratique d'une démocratie » qui « consiste à offrir et produire des simulacres d'autonomie ».

Brian Lowrey

This contribution analyses how modal auxiliaries-to-be function in Old English and how they came to be grammaticalised into a grammatical category of their own in modern English. We show that the grammaticalisation process was already well under way in Old English and that it has probably not yet reached its end in contemporary English. Various modal auxiliaries have indeed become grammaticalised at different paces: whereas some were already being grammaticalised in Old English, other are still undergoing this process in the language’s contemporary use.

design by artcompix